2022 - Volume 11

ISSN 2159-0281 (Print)
eISSN 2159-029X (Online)

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Individual articles can be accessed below. 
The Full volume is available HERE


An Examination of Servant Leader Faculty Chairs Empowering Faculty During a Crisis

Megan Neel, Grand Canyon University

Remilyn Mueller, Grand Canyon University

Helen Hammond, Grand Canyon University

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2022.1

The ability to flourish during a crisis requires a unique skill set focused on emotional, psychological, and social well-being. As COVID-19 swept the nation, academic administrators faced many difficult decisions surrounding emergency remote learning as well as the health and safety of students and faculty. While some leaders found themselves able to guide their teams and lead them to success despite the pandemic that surrounded them, others stumbled. This quantitative study surveyed traditional full-time faculty (FTF) (n = 29) and online full-time faculty (OFTF) (n = 51) at a Southwestern university to examine the relationship between faculty self-empowerment, faculty flourishing, and faculty chair servant leadership during the COVID-19 pandemic. An analysis of all faculty found a significant correlation between all variables. An examination of just the FTF respondents found a significant correlation between chair servant leadership and faculty flourishing as well as between faculty self-empowerment and flourishing, but it did not find a correlation between chair servant leadership and faculty self-empowerment. An analysis of the OFTF respondents found a significant correlation between all variables. These results indicate that higher levels of faculty chair servant leadership are linked with faculty self-empowerment and faculty flourishing. As such, promoting a servant leadership mindset in faculty chairs may be pivotal in promoting faculty effectiveness via increased self-efficacy (which may be of increased importance during times of educational turmoil such during the pandemic). Notably this relationship may be even more important in the online context, while outside sources may play a greater role in empowering faculty on campus.

Key words: characteristics of servant leadership, crisis management, COVID-19, higher education, online faculty empowerment, pandemic, traditional faculty empowerment, servant leadership.

Effect of Video Announcements on Instructor Presence and Student Engagement in the Graduate Online Classroom

Jessica R. Hilton, Logan University

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2022.2

Online learning has become a common method of course delivery in higher education. Instructor presence and student engagement are critical to quality education but can be difficult to achieve in the asynchronous online learning environment. The use of video has been highlighted as one method to improve instructor presence and student engagement; however, research is limited on the most efficient ways for instructors to incorporate video into their courses. This research study examined the effect of instructor-created video announcements on perceived instructor presence and self-reported student engagement. Students enrolled in two sections of an introductory graduate nutrition course received specifically crafted announcements based on the Community of Inquiry Framework (COI). The control group received text-based announcements and the experimental group received video announcements. Both groups completed surveys to assess student engagement pre- and postintervention and instructor presence postintervention. Overall, the findings showed there was no effect on perception of instructor presence or student engagement between the control and experimental groups. However, insights for improving teaching strategies were gleaned.

Keywords: student engagement, instructor presence, video, announcement, Community of Inquiry Framework, graduate students

Classroom Assignments for Fostering Resilience–An Instructional Design Model on Affective Personality Development

Hermann Astleitner, Paris Lodron University Salzburg

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2022.3

There is a long tradition in the research about how to design classroom assignments to foster cognitive learning. However, especially since the COVID-19 crisis, an affective turnaround that focuses on strengthening personality and personal development has increasingly broken new ground in teaching and learning. The resulting question is whether affective learning can also be supported through classroom assignments. In this paper, we present an instructional design framework for stimulating research and practice on assignment-based affective learning. We selected the resilience of students as a focus on affective personality development and generated a systematic set of classroom assignments for supporting resilience. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, we started by building a theoretical model of goal areas for supporting resilience concerning control, problem solving, and personal growth. We then proposed different types of classroom assignments that might facilitate the acquiring of resilience within classroom settings. Finally, open questions are discussed that need to be addressed in future research and practical implementations.

Keywords: task-based learning, instructional systems design, personality development, instructional design model, affective learning

Using a Pre-entry Program to Increase Community College Student Athletes’ Self-Efficacy

Jacqueline A. Stahlke, Victor Valley College

Jeff Cranmore, Grand Canyon University

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2022.4

The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto design of this study was to determine if, and to what extent, self-efficacy increases after the implementation of a pre-entry program for community college student athletes in Southern California. The self-efficacy theory provided the theoretical foundation to address the research questions in this study. The sample was composed of 21 community college student athletes in Southern California who completed a pre-entry program during the 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 academic years. The result of the paired samples t-test revealed the physiological states scores were significantly lower for the posttest (M-post = 26.24, SD = 1.660) than for the pretest (M-pre = 28.29, SD = 7.805), t(20) = 1.864, p = .038. There were nonstatistically significant main effects for overall self-efficacy, mastery experiences, vicarious learning, and social persuasion scores. These findings have implications for future research based on the study’s strengths and weaknesses, and the results lay the groundwork for future research for improving the transition into community college for student athletes.

Keywords: Community college student athletes, self-efficacy, pre-entry programs

Unplugging Students: Utilizing Guided Technology Policies to Enhance Classroom Engagement

Darien A. Hall, Grand Canyon University

Mark Wireman, Grand Canyon University

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2022.5

The utilization of in-class technology to enhance student learning and increase topic engagement, such as audience response systems, is well-documented. Unfortunately, freely available personal technology such as cell phones and laptops can also act as distractions that reduce learning effectiveness. In this study, which was undertaken just prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented a guided technology policy that limited access to personal devices in introductory undergraduate anatomy and physiology courses to determine the effect on in-class perception of student engagement and student performance. We utilized grades and surveys to examine the relationship between technology use, achievement, and student perception of the guided technology policy. The results demonstrated that while students in the guided technology class sections of the study all reported a significant increase in feelings of engagement and increased levels of attention paid to the instructor, but there was no increase in grades compared to students whose classes allowed free technology use. Thus, while a disconnect was found between perception and achievement, it is clear that selective integration of classroom technology can be beneficial in promoting engagement.

Keywords: engagement, technology, undergraduate, success

Gratitude and Self-Perceived Stress in an Online Doctoral Program

Mendi Davis, Grand Canyon University

Kimberly McCann, Grand Canyon University

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2022.6

The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative research study was to examine the extent to which a relationship exists between the use of mindfulness interventions, specifically the use of a gratitude journal, and self-perceived stress in students enrolled within a doctoral program at a Christian university located within the southwestern region of the United States. The sample consisted of 292 doctoral students (n = 292) from a single Christian university. This study involved six courses within three different doctoral programs. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) in the second week of the course and again in the sixth week of the course. Data were analyzed using a paired t-test. We found that the use of mindfulness interventions, specifically the use of a gratitude journal, had no statistical significance on doctoral student’s self-perceived stress and the null hypothesis could not be rejected.

Keywords: mindfulness, online doctoral students, self-perceived stress, gratitude journal

Implementing Emotional and Social Intelligence Competencies in an Educational Business Service

Renee Winter, Grand Canyon University

Kimberly McCann, Grand Canyon University

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2022.7

The purpose of this study was to understand how knowledgeable higher education leaders are about the competencies of emotional and social intelligence. The perceived need to utilize these competencies with subordinates was also explored. The theoretical frameworks of emotional intelligence and social intelligence support this study and consist of four competencies: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. The questions that drove this study were “How knowledgeable are leaders about the competencies of Emotional Leadership Theory and Social Leadership Theory?” and “How do leaders in an educational business service perceive the need to utilize emotional and social intelligence with followers?” The sample consisted of six online faculty leaders from an education business service. Participants were interviewed and videotaped using Zoom. Data were obtained through semistructured interviews with open-ended questions that focused on online faculty leadership knowledge and perception. The interviews were transcribed and coded to identify themes. The findings showed that promoting the four competencies should be done through modeling effective behaviors and efficient coaching while supporting and encouraging each of the team members. Future research should focus on the emotional-social intelligence model from the perspective of the full-time online faculty members and other operational environments.

Keywords: leadership, education, emotional intelligence, social intelligence, online, followers, team

Mindfulness in The Online Classroom: A Tool for Success

Paulla Mizer, Grand Canyon University

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2022.8

The growing complexity of online education requires instructors to be more knowledgeable, tech-savvy, and student-centered. With these skills, instructors can perform the difficult task of capturing and sustaining student engagement within Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs). In addition to the stress of creating a dynamic online class, the COVID-19 pandemic has added another level of difficulty and stress to facilitating healthy online learning environments. This innovative methodology paper will study the insightful adult learning theory of Malcolm Knowles as it relates to Master of Science of Nursing (MSN) students. It will also examine current and emerging online learning management systems (LMS), learning platforms, and methodologies. The population of the study consisted of students from a broad demographic at the MSN core curriculum studies for Nurse Practitioner, Nurse Educator, Nurse Leader, IT, and Healthcare Quality Programs. The aim of this study is to identify the effect instructors have on students’ stress levels and students’ capacity to succeed in dynamic online learning environments. The impact of instructor pressure and stress on students is considerable, and this stress not only creates toxic learning environments for both students and instructors but is detrimental to student success. I will review mindfulness, and the Christian values of kindness, grace, and mercy in consideration of the online student and their effect on stress in the instructor-student relationship. I will further evaluate my experiences in addressing student stressors by these Christian values and explain how these behaviors can change an educational experience. My hypothesis is that online HEI instructors can decrease classroom stress and increase engagement by employing Christian values to facilitate productive interactions with students, thus improving their learning no matter what the LMS.

Keywords: learning management systems, Christian, stress, mindfulness

Removing Barriers for University Students with Disabilities 

Gwen Schilling-Dickey, Grand Canyon University

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2022.9

While there has been a long-standing practice of providing service options for students with disabilities within the K–12 classroom, universities have less experience and fewer resources in this area. University students who have been diagnosed with a disability are expected to self-advocate and produce sufficient evidence in order to access disability services within their chosen university. Teachers in the K–12 classroom have an abundance of research to explore when looking for strategies that work to help their students with special needs succeed. On the opposite end of the spectrum, university instructors have little to no direct experience in the nuances of providing adequate educational opportunities to adults with diagnosed disabilities. This article provides information on the current research on serving adults with disabilities at the university level. It also gives information concerning barriers for students with disabilities and recommendations for removing those barriers.

Keywords: special education, self-advocacy, barriers, higher education, disability

Educators and their Role in Contributing to the Self-esteem of Adolescent Middle School Girls-A Qualitative Study

Garnita L Pleas, Grand Canyon University

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2022.10

The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore how educators describe strategies used in contributing to the self-esteem of adolescent middle school girls. It was not known how educators describe strategies used in contributing to the self-esteem of adolescent middle school girls. The theoretical framework for this study was the Transformational Leadership theory, which is an inspirational and motivational theory, promoting encouragement and trust. The research question for this study was ‘how do educators describe strategies used in contributing to the self-esteem of adolescent middle school girls. A purposeful sampling approach was used to recruit participants for this study. Data was collected through the use of an online questionnaire and one-on-one interviews. The sample size for this study was 25 participants for the online questionnaire and 10 participants for the one-on-one interviews. Four themes emerged from the analysis supported by the data sources: (a) Educators engage in building relationships through communication, the foundation of building, (b) Educators empower through affirmations, inspiration, empathy, and compassion, (c) Educators enhance self-esteem through programming, helping adolescent girls work through challenges, (d) Educators encourage through leadership practices of being a role model, mentor, or supporter. The study findings revealed strategies that educators use with adolescent middle school girls in contributing to their self-esteem and align with the tenets of transformational leadership. 

Keywords: Transformational leadership, educators, self-esteem, adolescent girls, middle school 

The Effect of Layered Inquiry-Based Learning Model on Students' Skills, Values, and Attitudes

Abdurrahman Kılıç, Duzce University Department of Educational Sciences, Duzce, Turkey

 Şeyma Şahin, Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education, Duzce, Turkey

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2022.11

This research aims to determine the effect of the Research Methods Course organized according to the Layered Inquiry-Based Learning Model on students' skills, values, and attitudes. A pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental method without a control group were used in the research. The research has a mixed research feature in terms of data collection methods. The concurrent triangulation method, one of the mixed research methods, was used. The research study group was determined by the "purposive sampling" method. The study group consisted of 124 sophomore students studying at the Faculty of Education, Turkish Language Teaching and Elementary Education Mathematics Teaching Department of a state university in the spring semester of the 2020-2021 academic year. The course design was structured according to the "Layered Inquiry-Based Learning Model." Research data were collected with the "Critical Thinking Tendency Scale," "Attitude Scale Towards Collaborative Learning," and "Opinion Form." In the quantitative analysis, the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test was used for related measurements from non-parametric tests, and qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. At the end of the research, it is evident that the students gained personal and social skills, thinking skills and scientific research skills, and various values. At the end of the course, it was concluded that the students generally had positive attitudes towards the course, cooperative learning, and scientific research.

Keywords: Layered inquiry-based learning model, skill, value, attitude.

Online Professional Development Opportunities: Virtual Conferencing During a Pandemic

Rebecca Smith, University of Portland

Nicole C. Ralston, University of Portland

Hillary Merk, University of Portland

Jacqueline Waggoner, University of Portland


DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2022.12


This descriptive study provides an overview of research-based benefits and challenges of attending online conferences, in addition to participant feedback data from one online education conference conducted in February, 2021, during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research is grounded in adult learning theory. The purpose of this study was to explore conference participant perceptions (n = 51) of their learning at this virtual education conference with the goal of contributing to future best practices in online professional learning experiences. 

Post-conference survey data indicated that 98% of participants reported that the sessions were of high quality and the presenters were prepared. However, there were statistically significantly     (p = .043) more participants who enjoyed face-to-face conferences compared with online conferences. Additionally, over 90% of participants agreed that the content from the conference would benefit their students and improve their own research practice. Recommendations for facilitating effective online conferences include: 1) Organize and communicate consistently and with clarity; 2) Utilize technological platforms that are familiar to participants; 3) Consider the sociopolitical context in which the conference occurs.

This research can inform virtual conference organizers in effective planning and facilitating of online professional development experiences that align with adult learning theory components. 

Keywords: online learning, professional development, teacher learning, andragogy



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