2018 - Volume 7

ISSN 2159-0281 (Print)
eISSN 2159-029X (Online)

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Table of ContentsEditorial BoardCall for Papers
Individual articles can be accessed below. The full volume of the journal is available at the following link:

Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Edition




MULTIDIMENSIONAL ENGAGEMENT IN LEARNING—AN INTEGRATED INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN APPROACH

Hermann Astleitner

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2018.1

There is rising evidence that it is an increasingly difficult task for teachers to engage students in learning. This important problem in daily instruction has produced numerous research activities focusing on conditions and consequences of student engagement. However, these activities have led to a complex situation in which findings are widely scattered, redundant, or difficult to apply in instructional practice. Therefore, this paper integrates research findings on cognitive, motivational, and social-emotional aspects of student engagement based on a review of literature. Findings from the review have been used to formulate 15 instructional strategies as part of a hierarchically organized instructional design approach for incorporating multidimensional engagement into elements of learning (i.e., learning materials for lessons or instructional units). Strategies for cognitive engagement concern engagement levels such as knowledge, comprehension, convergent thinking, evaluation, and synthesis. Strategies for motivational engagement focus on attention, relevance, interest, identification, and intrinsic motivation. Strategies for social-emotional engagement are related to self-assertion, entertainment, belongingness, adaptiveness, and security. Finally, in order to support research and implementation, measurement instruments on multidimensional levels of engagement and related instructional strategies are proposed. Keywords: Instructional design theory, student involvement, instructional materials, research synthesis, measurement

MINDFULNESS AND SELF-EFFICACY IN AN ONLINE DOCTORAL PROGRAM

K.M. McCann, Mendi Davis

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2018.2

The purpose of this quasiexperimental quantitative research study was to examine the extent to which a relationship exists between the use of mindfulness interventions and doctoral student self-efficacy in students enrolled in a doctoral program at a Christian university located in the southwestern United States. The theoretical foundation of self-efficacy developed by Bandura informed this study. The sample consisted of 19 doctoral students (n = 19) from a Christian university. Participants completed the Self-Efficacy Scale (SES) in the first week of the course and again in the final week of the course. Three groups were compared. One group was given interventions in weeks 2 and 7. The second group was given interventions in weeks 3, 4, 5, and 7. The third group was given interventions within weeks 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. The researchers found no statistical significance between the use of mindfulness interventions and doctoral students’ self-efficacy. Keywords: mindfulness, online doctoral students, self-efficacy

SUMMER PRACTICUM PARTNERSHIP: IMPACT ON EFFICACY OF PRESERVICE TEACHERS

Jim Mostofo

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2018.3

This paper describes a partnership between a college of education at a Christian university in the southwest U.S. and a local high school where preservice teachers completed their practicum (field experience) during summer school. The benefits to and efficacy of the preservice teachers were examined using a qualitative postprogram survey. The results indicated that the authentic teaching experience provided the main benefit of the partnership and had the greatest impact on teacher efficacy. The preservice teachers also cited the experience of working with mentor teachers and connecting with high school students as impacting their confidence, and their efficacy was affected by the opportunity to observe their mentor teachers in the field. Keywords: practicum/field-experience, preservice teachers, school partnerships, efficacy

COMPUTER SELF-EFFICACY REVISITED

Elizabeth A. Loar

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2018.4

Computer self-efficacy is associated with a variety of positive learning processes and outcomes.Despite historical attempts to measure computer self-efficacy, there are severe validity concerns apparent in the literature. In 2014, M. C. Howard developed the Computer Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES) with a focus on general computer use rather than reliance on specific technological hardware. The two studies here employed a nonexperimental, quantitative research design with self-report measures. The majority of participants in this study were female students from a Midwestern community college. In Study 1, the reliability and divergent validity of the CSES was tested. In Study 2, the unidimensional factor structure of the measure was supported through confirmatory factor analysis. The findings show additional evidence for the reliability and validity of the CSES with community college participants from the Midwest United States. Based on the results of this research, instructors and researchers may administer the CSES for general assessment and research purposes with reasonable confidence. Keywords: computer self-efficacy, community college students, factor analysis

PERSONALIZED ONLINE REFLECTIVE DELIBERATIONS: NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES ACROSS INSTITUTION TYPE

Anita Chadha

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2018.5

This research contributes to knowledge about the effectiveness of online deliberations as an innovative means for providing online education. Using a mixed methods approach, student peer exchanges were analyzed on a collaborative website structured around interactive weekly discussions in politics and offered across three types of institutions: a four-year public university, a four-year private university, and a community college. Findings show that despite differences in institution type, the 81 students responded and personalized their discussions with academic reflectivity across class types in their peer discussions.This study finds that interactive discussion forums are a best practice for offering pedagogical content in an online environment and may be used across any discipline or class type whether it is a face-to-face, hybrid, or fully online. Keywords: classroom innovation, online best practices, educational best practices, online teaching and learning

TEACHING STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES AT THE COLLEGE LEVEL

Rebekah Dyer

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2018.6

The number of students with disabilities who attend college is increasing, but many of them are not completing their degree program. Many students with disabilities are not socially prepared to attend college. They may struggle with developing relationships with peers and faculty, which leads to a feeling of not being supported. There are a variety of perceptions regarding individuals with disabilities held by peers and faculty that can negatively impact students with disabilities in college. Students with disabilities do have a legal right to receive accommodations at the college level; however, many students are not aware of those rights or choose not to pursue them. Colleges and universities and faculty need to be a support system for students with disabilities and need to be proactive in being informed about the law and the types of accommodations they can provide. Students with disabilities can be successful in college if everyone works together to set them up for success. Keywords: perceptions, Americans with disabilities act, accommodations, disabilities, university, college

SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP: A GUIDE TO A LEADERSHIP STYLE THAT EMBRACES MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES

Gina Smith, Maria Minor, Henry Brashen

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2018.7

The purpose of this research study was to examine the characteristics of Spiritual Leadership and compare and contrast this style to 5 other well-known leadership styles including Transformational Leadership, Servant Leadership, Situational Leadership, Authoritarian Leadership, and Moral Leadership. Although each of these styles had some very positive characteristics, it was found that Spiritual Leadership allowed for various leadership approaches to be applied as needed and these approaches were designed to motivate and inspire followers to promote positive results. Examples of effective spiritual leaders were provided. Specific skills needed for someone to become a spiritual leader were provided. These skills include self-awareness, self-esteem, effective communication, decision-making acumen, and the ability to promote and engage in healthy conflict. Each of these skills was examined and explained.

TRADITIONAL AND ONLINE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE (CATS): A MIXED-METHOD STUDY

Manyu Li, Sandi van Lieu

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2018.8

The goal of this study is to investigate both the prevalence and the described strategies of university professors’ use of one of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) techniques, Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs). This study also aims to compare whether traditional and online faculty and full-time and part-time faculty differ in their use of CATs. Through mixed methodologies, both statistics of the use of CATs (quantitative) and actual experiences described by faculty (qualitative) were reported. In Study 1, 117 university faculty were recruited for the survey study and all but five of them used some forms of CATs (97%) and about two-third of them indicated using CATs “often” or “always” (70%). No significant differences were found between adjunct and full-time faculty. No difference was found between faculty teaching online and in the traditional classroom. In Study 2, five adjunct faculty were recruited to participate in an interview study and descriptions of their experiences of the use of CATs were obtained and analyzed. Several themes were identified to address how CATs were used and why faculty supported the use of CATs. Implications for faculty training and future studies were discussed. Keywords: Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, SoTL, Classroom Assessment Technique, Adjunct, online teaching, university education

SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAMS IN BUSINESS, UNIVERSITIES, AND K–12: EDUCATING STUDENTS AND LEADERS TOWARD A SUSTAINABILITY MINDSET 

Danielle J. Camacho, Jill M. Legare

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2018.9

The purpose of this article is to contribute to the growing body of research that focuses on best practices for environmental sustainability education in K–12 classrooms. A review of related literature included emerging trends, commitment by business leaders to engage in CSR activities in the community, and opportunities for education at the K–12 level. The review of existing literature provides examples as to how sustainability-based environmental programs may provide educational foundations for business leaders and educators. Adopting sustainability course work, programs and projects allows students and educators to acquire knowledge and the competencies necessary for the 21st century. Administrators, business leaders, and educators may find insights into the merits of employing best practices in sustainability education. Keywords: Environmental Sustainability, Education, K–12, Corporate Social Responsibility, STEM

PROXIMITY IN THE ONLINE CLASSROOM:ENGAGEMENT, RELATIONSHIPS, AND PERSONALIZATION

Thomas Dyer, Jacob Aroz, Elizabeth Larson 

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2018.10

For those who have taught in the traditional classroom at any level, proximity is understood as a best practice in managing classroom behaviors. The farther away the teacher is from the student the more likely the student is going to pay less attention and find themselves off task. Likewise, the inverse is true, the closer the teacher is to the student the less likely the student will be off task. In its simplest form, proximity can be described in two ways: classroom arrangement and teacher mobility. In the virtual modality, instructors have little control over classroom arrangement, but they can influence the perception of mobility by applying certain actions, that may impact the manner in which students perceive the proximal space within the classroom through various strategies to engage students, creating viable relationships with students, and personalizing the online classroom space. Appendix A outlines approaches and techniques to allow instructors to promote community, formative assessment, and critical thinking, and to clarify and create resources that close the proximal gap. Keywords: feedback, instructor, learning communities, technology, formative assessment, online education, social presence, personalization, relationships, engagement

KEEPING YOUR SANITY WHILE KEEPING YOUR STUDENTS: HOW TEACHER ENGAGEMENT CAN INCREASE STUDENT PERSISTENCE WHEN TEACHING STUDENTS DURING THEIR FIRST COLLEGE COURSE

Lynn Basko, Crystal McCabe  

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2018.11

Student persistence is a common concern for online educators. Previous research has shown that student persistence rates are effected by instructor presence, creating a sense of community in the classroom, and varying classroom activities for students (Croxton, 014). Based on the authors’ experiences, there are three strategies for increasing student persistence among students taking their first college course. Using Web 2.0 tools (Zoom, Loom, Remind, and Flipgrid), increasing discussion board posts containing personal experiences, and using effective time management tools can allow instructors to increase student persistence rates. This article provides a brief literature review regarding student persistence and an explanation of the authors’ experiences for increasing student persistence, as well as suggestions for further research in the area of student persistence and instructor strategies. Specific skills needed for someone to become a spiritual leader were provided. These skills include self-awareness, self-esteem, effective communication, decision-making acumen, and the ability to promote and engage in healthy conflict. Each of these skills was examined and explained.

REFLECTION: BENEFITS OF GAMIFICATION IN ONLINE HIGHER EDUCATION



Daniel A. Kaufmann

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2018.12

This article presents a reflective account of how gamification can help students overcome complex academic challenges, such as those involved in the dissertation process and other elements of higher learning. Gamification has been shown across multiple levels of academic instruction to have a positive impact on task completion by augmenting the experiential elements encountered by students who are engaging in the learning process. When a task becomes mundane, it typically lacks a positive feedback loop, which results in it becoming easier for a person to put off their intended task and forget to return to the activity prior to deadline. Many online learners participate in their degree programs in the midst of highly involved personal schedules, which can lead to lapses in organization and reduced performance as a student. Many applications have promise for improving the levels of fun, engagement, motivation, and task completion in various areas of daily life. Online faculty, can integrate these applications with existing online curricula to help students bridge the gap between passive stagnation in a course and active engagement with the course material to increase their grades earned and course-wide satisfaction. Keywords: task completion, motivation, online learning, gamification

METACOGNITIVE MENTORING FRAMEWORK REDUCE STUDENT ATTRITION IN ONLINE EDUCATION

Lisa Marie Portugal  

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2018.13

This paper summarizes a veteran instructor’s experience during a short, yet intensive mentorship within a Community of Practice (CoP) framework. As a member in a Participatory Action Research mentoring/coaching project, the educator gained new insights and knowledge about how to better serve first-year, entry-level, College 100 learners. Key insights cultivated via a peer coaching and mentoring process helped the educator develop specific instructional best practices better suited to the cognitive, constructivism online learning format designed for first-year learners. The most profound growth experiential learning take-away from the coaching and mentoring process was the understanding of and new skills applied that work best with the student population. Having veteran experience instructing advanced learners for a variety of institutions, the educator learned that instructional techniques cannot be applied uniformly when teaching in a first-year classroom compared to more advanced learners. In addition, the educator provides many of her best practices she uses in all her classrooms at many institutions she teaches for. She shares them with you in this book. Novice and veteran educators and trainers in any instructional environment will find useful teaching tools to benefit learners of all ages.



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