2021 - Volume 10

ISSN 2159-0281 (Print)
eISSN 2159-029X (Online)

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LINK TO FULL VOLUME

Individual articles can be accessed below. 


"Honest Answers to Honest Questions": Francis and Edith Schaeffer's Approach to the Education of Adults

Adam Rasmussen

DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2021.1

The teaching strategies of Francis and Edith Schaeffer helped young adults construct meaning in their lives. During several seasons of tumultuous social unrest, the Schaeffers consistently gave shelter to many confused, searching, and hurting adults. Their educational motto was “honest answers to honest questions.”For nearly thirty years, from 1955-1984,Francis and Edith taught at L’Abri, a unique living-learning community they founded in the Swiss Alps. Until now no formal study has researched the educational aspect of Francis Schaeffer at L’Abri. This recent mixed-methods study has defined the educational emphases and methods ofthe Schaeffer approach at L’Abri. All the participantsin the study (n=30) were students of Francis Schaeffer at L’Abri. Their interviews yielded rich and deeply nuanced descriptions of the teaching-learning process there. In summary, they identifiedthree vital components and five valuable expressionsof the L’Abriphenomenon. Significantly, every participant (100%) indicated that Francis Schaeffer’s use of questions was helpful to their overall learning experience. The article concludes with several iterative teaching strategies from the Schaeffer approach to apply in 21stcenturyeducational settings. 

Keywords: meaning, questions, inquiry, educational methods, emerging adults, Francis Schaeffer, L’Abri

Person Centered Pedagogy in an Asynchronous Online Environment: Elements of a Person-Centered Instructor

Anna M. Johnson, Grand Canyon University


DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2021.2

There are several academic resources to help an instructor navigate the asynchronous online classroom. Teaching in the current collegiate atmospherepresents with some different strategies and pedagogical considerations. Among these considerations are student engagement within the classroom. Student engagement seems to be the golden key to unlocking the door ofsuccess in the online environment. How do we get the unmotivated student involved? What do we have to do to reach the studentstruggling to understand the content of this course? How do some students grasp the concepts we are teaching easier than others? While there are several researchers that have given credence to student engagement and the challenges represented in these questions/statements, this article will focus on the importance of person-centered pedagogical considerations with respect to student engagement, grading, and instructor involvement to enhance the learning environment of the online classroom. The key to unlocking the door to better understanding, is the difference between student-centered and person-centered pedagogy.

Strategic Empathy in Virtual Learning and Instruction: A Contemplative Essay About Teacher-Student Rapport During Times of Crisis

James Cartee, The University of Tennessee-Knoxville


DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2021.3

This article introduces the issue and perception that instructors treat online college students differently than traditional in-person students (grades, late assignments, or general well-being). Without tangibly interacting with a physical presence through virtual formats, some faculty members lack the ability and know-how to practice empathy effectively in times of crisis. A review of current literature explores this crucial topic and provides valuable insights on empathy, defining the term and demonstrating how practitioners can successfully show empathy in today’s online learning environment. In hopes of helping current practitioners in higher education, the text then presents tips and advice from personal narratives on how to implement the strategy of active empathy positively and proactively in the online classroom. The text ends with a storytelling approach where empathy was necessary to achieve professional outcomes. The paper stresses the presence of empathy and compassion through intentional engagement with college students in all major times of crisis, including but not limited to the present COVID-19 pandemic.  

Keywords: Caring presence, caring presence, compassion, distance learning, empathy, empathy in teaching, higher education, instructional communication, learning management systems, online college learning, learning management systems, higher education

Mindfulness in Education: Utilizing Mindfulness as a Tool to Cultivate Stress Coping Skills in K–12 Teachers through a Mindfulness Virtual Online Course (MVOC)

Uraipanyawan Pinthong, Arizona State University


DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2021.4

 
This study investigated how to decrease teacher stress and burnout by a virtual online mindfulness practice intervention with cognitive apprenticeship, self-determination, and self-efficacy theory as the frameworks. My research project examined instruction and training in mindfulness practice as a tool to cultivate stress coping skills in K–12 teachers through a six-week mindfulness virtual online course (MVOC). This study involved five participants and employed an explanatory sequential mixed-methods approach comprised of quantitative data collection with pre- and post-surveys followed by three qualitative interviews over six weeks to facilitate a case study consideration. The results exhibited reduced stress in participants following an increase in awareness from developing a personal mindfulness practice. Furthermore, the MVOC intervention helped the participants build a daily personalized mindfulness practice that improved their stress coping skills and was beneficial in specific ways. Teachers who practice routine mindfulness will cultivate progressively effective stress coping skills and K–12 teachers can enjoy increased job satisfaction and decreased burnout.
 
Keywords: multimethodology, teacher stress, mindfulness, coping skill for K–12 teachers, online mindfulness.

Group Dynamics in a Cadaveric Laboratory: A Case Study for Instructional Practices

Natascha Heise, Eastern Virginia Medical School

Kalpana Gupta, Colorado State University

Tod R Clapp, Colorado State University


DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2021.5

This study investigated student group dynamics, personal development, experience, and learning approaches in cadaveric laboratories at Colorado State University and Rocky Vista University. Interviews and case study analysis was performed in conjunction with Forsyth’s conceptual framework on group dynamics. Results indicated that the majority of participants were pleased with their group members but preferred not to study or spend their free time together. Eighty five percent of students stated that they underwent a change in their development as a group member and have modified their learning strategies from rote memorization to being able to connect the material as a whole. Overall, students appreciated a smaller student to cadaver ratio as it provided more time to dissect and opportunities to engage with the material. This study generated findings critical for the understanding of how group work in the cadaveric laboratory affects students in their learning, personal development, and knowledge acquisition. It offers a critical lens for restructuring curricula and incorporating effective methods into the scientific classroom. 

Keywords: group dynamics, anatomy instruction

A Pedagogical Reflection on Counseling Skills in Asynchronous Learning Environments

Daniel Kaufmann, Grand Canyon University 

D'Netra Smith, Grand Canyon University

Janet Barnes, Grand Canyon University

Joan Lawrence, Grand Canyon University

Jennifer Young, Grand Canyon University

Christy Land, Grand Canyon University 

Tanisha Guy, Grand Canyon University 

Elizabeth Krzewski, Grand Canyon University


DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2021.7

The online environment provides a unique opportunity for students from wide-ranging locations to participate in academic activities to develop collegial or vocational abilities. The training process for work in the counseling field consists of graduate level learning pertaining to mental health issues, self-exploration, ethical and moral development, and reviewing contemporary research topics affecting diverse populations of people. Perhaps most importantly, it also involves skill development to be able to translate knowledge into a new counselor’s skills and dispositional presentation. Since online courses are typically delivered in the formats of synchronous, asynchronous, or hybrid, it is reasonable to reflect on the differences experienced by students in skills-based courses and consider possible impacts the varied online learning environments could have on their development towards being counseling professionals. This reflection seeks to blend research and publication findings for counselor education in skills courses through the experiences of faculty and students exposed to varied learning environments utilizing the online format. 

Keywords: online learning, counseling skills, asynchronous courses, COVID-19 and online education

“Zooming” Into Engagement: Increasing Engagement in the Online Classroom

Sonya Berges, Grand Canyon University

Shawna Martino, Grand Canyon University

Lynn Basko, Grand Canyon University

Crystal McCabe, Grand Canyon University


DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2021.8

Engagement  strategies  for  classroom  instruction  are  now more  important  than  ever  with  many schools utilizing remote learning options. Classroom engagement allows teachers to keep students focused on the lesson, create a classroom community, and monitor students’ progress. However, many teachers have struggled with incorporating engagement strategies into the online platform. Several  traditional  classroom  engagement strategies  can  be  modified  to  fit  the  online  learning modality. In this article, the authors describe several classroom engagement strategies, including Quick  Draw,  One  Word Splash,  Think-Pair-Share,  Secret  Answer  and  Response Cards.  The authors  discuss  their  personal  experience  with incorporating  these  strategies  into  the  online modality. Some modifications for the online classroom include utilizing features in Zoom or other video conferencing websites, including breakout rooms, chat features, emojis, and whiteboards. These strategies can increase engagement for students of all grade levels, Kindergarten through collegiate. Incorporating these strategies can assist teachers in increasing student engagement and therefore increasing student self-efficacy and success rates. 

Keywords: Engagement strategies, Zoom, Technology, Online learning

Project Management Tools in the Classroom: Using the Atlassian Tool Suite in the Classroom 

Mark Reha, Grand Canyon University

Victoria Fai, Grand Canyon University


DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2021.9

We’ve all heard it before from our students that they are pressed for time, struggle to manage their time, and often do not have the training and tools to help them out. Are there some cost-effective tools that could be used by both faculty and students to help solve this problem? This paper documents the results of analyzing one such tool that could be used in academia to help students solve this problem especially for complex and lengthy courses, such as a Senior Capstone Project.

Padlet: The Multi-Purpose Web 2.0 Tool

Shaunna Waltemeyer, Grand Canyon University

Jason R. Hembree, Grand Canyon University

Helen G. Hammond, Grand Canyon University


DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2021.10

For  many  faculty,  Padlet  has  become  an  important  Web  2.0  tool  in  face-to-face  and  online instruction.   The  faculty in  the College  of  Business  at  a  large  private  university  located  in  the Southwest United States examined best practices in the use of Padlet in the online classroom and explored how  else  this  Web  tool  can  be  used. While integration  of this  resource  to  augment classroom instruction is the primary application, faculty in this example identified additional ways to  engage  and  collaborate with  Padlet.    Recommendations  for  use  included student  resources, instructor  collaboration,  student  collaboration,  practitioner starter  kits,  faculty  starter  kits,  and conference resources. Applications and suggestions for each are provided. Conference  resources,  consulting  resources,  faculty  collaboration, higher  education,  online learning, Padlet, student collaboration, Web 2.0.

Let’s Collaborate! Course Content Collaboration: Global Business and Servant Leadership

Merri Pederson, Grand Canyon University      

Helen G. Hammond, Grand Canyon University


DOI: 10.9743/JIR.2021.11

It is not uncommon for faculty to engage students in collaborative efforts within the online and face-to-face classroom setting.  From a best practice perspective, it is valuable to consider other collaboration  opportunities.  Based  on  this  idea, two  faculty from  a  private  Christian  University decided  to conduct  a  cross-course  collaboration  between students  in an adult Global  Business course and students in a traditional Servant Leadership course. The cross-course collaboration was examined  through  the  lens  of Bandura’s Social Learning theory. The key  takeaways included potential teaching best practices through cross-course collaboration. The benefits of enhanced 21st-century leadership skills, specifically in the areas of presentation skills, problem solving skills, and communication skills may also be realized.






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