The following module will outline the benefits of engaging in scholarly research and discuss many of the barriers that faculty encounter as they begin a research endeavor.
- Identify types of research
- Analyze perceived barriers to conducting research
A Brief Rationale for Research
Research and scholarly expectations have increased on college campuses across the nation as scholarly productivity has become an increasingly important priority for faculty members. The research being conducted on college campuses covers a range of purposes and has both academic and non-academic implications. This research provides much of the foundation for knowledge that makes possible the innovations and advancements in wider society, thereby creating social, economic, cultural and environmental impacts.
With the increasing emphasis being placed on research by faculty and the potential for significant impact, why are many faculty apprehensive about beginning a research program? Approximately 26% of faculty in a survey of 40,000 reported that they do not write on a weekly basis (Lindolm, et al in Belcher, 2009). Oftentimes ideas fall by the wayside because the research and publication process seems a mystery too complex to conquer. What are these perceived barriers?
Overcoming Perceived Obstacles to Research
1. I have no idea where to start
- Welcome to that start! The Research Ready program will provide you with the guidance and resources.
- Did you know that a dialogue about writing can help potential scholars come together to work through writing anxiety (Rocco, 2011). The resources and suggested reading in this section will assist you.
- Grand Canyon University also offers research mentors to guide you.
2. I am not a great writer
- Ready for a shock? Your writing will not be perfect. It is a skill that is explored and developed, but it is not a perfect or easy process (Rocco, 2011).
- Once you have written your drafts- seriously imperfect as they may be - resources exist on campus to assist you in revisions. Remember, the work most difficult to read is that which has not been written.
3. I don't have time
- Will anything create big gaps of time for writing? Probably not. The reality is that faculty are busy and have to make time. However, you do not have to make a lot of time. According to Belcher (2009), it can just be that 15 minutes of writing a day can get you well on the way to your goals.
- Create a commitment. Invite peers to join you in this commitment so that you can support each other. Give yourself goals and deadlines.
4. It will interfere with my teaching
- For a student focused instructor, "publish or perish" may seem to miss the mark. Taken in another context, the creation of scholarly work can, in fact, boost your ability to meet your student's needs.
- Refer to the Resources and Suggested Reading on this page for additional information on the positive impact that scholarly research can have on your teaching.
5. I am not an expert
- For those just beginning to publish, it might be hard to imagine yourself as an expert. However, if you thoroughly research your topic in advance and understand your own project, by the time you have completed the data collection and analysis, you will be the authority on your own results.
6. What is in it for me?
- An article may seem like a lot of work, especially in times when the author actually has to pay a publication fee! But it is an investment. An article well done and promoted can lead to other academic opportunities that lead to recognition, invitations, promotions, and avenues for compensation (Rocco, 2011).
- Promotion can be a big incentive to publish, but it can also be based on a curiosity and a desire to explore ideas in a professional dialogue (Rocco, 2011).
- The value of scholarly networking can be beneficial for your career (Rocco, 2011).
Basic Types of Research
Research is a systematic inquiry used to describe, explain, predict or control some observed phenomenon - the research topic. Research can be classified into four main types based on the specific purpose:
- Basic Research - This research is descriptive in nature and is used to understand and explain a phenomenon. This type of research is often conducted for the sake of increasing and advancing a knowledge base.
- Applied Research - The purpose of this research is to provide information that can be used and applied in an effort to help people understand and control their environment. This type of research is more prescriptive in nature and seeks to offer potential solutions to problems.
- Evaluation Research - The purpose of evaluation research is to examine the processes and outcomes associated with a particular solution to a problem. The research may be formative in that it attempts to improve the intervention or solution or it may be summative and attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of solution or program.
- Action Research - This research is often conducted within a program, organization or community and the researchers are involved in gathering data and studying themselves.
Regardless of the purpose of the research, the process is similar. Researchers begin by selecting a broad research topic and conducting a literature review to build up the researcher's knowledge base and to ensure the significance of the research. The researcher will then develop a research problem related to the topic and create a specific question. The research design will then be developed and the procedures for analyzing the data will be identified. The results of the research will hopefully lend themselves to the publication of a scholarly article.
- Belcher, W. (2009). Writing your journal article in 12 weeks: A guide to academic publishing success. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
- Brew, A. (2003). Teaching and Research: New Relationships and Their Implications for Inquiry- Based Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Higher Education Research & Development. 22, 3-18.
- Jacobs,R. L. (2011). Developing a research problem and purpose statement. In Rocco, T.S. andHatcher, T. (2011). The handbook of scholarly writing and publishing. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Lindholm, J. A., Szelenyi, K., Hurtado, S., & Korn, W.S. (2005). The American college teacher: National norms for the 2004-2005 HERI Faculty Survey. Los Angeles: UCLA Higher Education Research Institute.
- Marsh, H.W., and J. Hattie. The Relation Between Research Productivity and Teaching Effectiveness: Complementary, Antagonistic, or Independent Constructs? Journal of Higher Education,73, 603-641.
- Rocco, T. S. (2011). Reasons to write, writing opportunities, and other considerations. In Rocco, T.S. and Hatcher, T. (2011). The handbook of scholarly writing and publishing. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Wallace and Wray (2011). Scholary reading as a model for scholarly writing. In Rocco, T.S. and Hatcher, T. (2011). The handbook of scholarly writing and publishing. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.